Database management is a system for managing information that supports the organization’s business processes. It involves storing data and distribution to users and application programs and then modifying it if necessary as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from getting damaged due to unexpected failures. It is an element of a company’s overall informational infrastructure that supports decision-making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.
The first database systems were created in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They developed into information management systems (IMS) that made it possible to store and retrieve large amounts data for a wide range of purposes, ranging from calculating inventory to supporting complicated human resources and financial accounting functions.
A database consists of a set of tables that organize data according to a certain pattern, for example, one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records and allows cross-references among tables. Each table has a variety of fields, also known as attributes, that contain information about the data entities. The most widely used type of database that is currently in use is a relational model, designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This design is based on normalizing data to make it more user-friendly. It also makes it easier to update data without the need to modify different sections of the database.
The majority of DBMSs are able to support multiple database types by providing different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level focuses on costs, scalability, and other operational concerns such as the layout of the physical storage. The external level is the way the database appears in user interfaces and other applications. It may include a mix of different external views that are based on different data models. It may also include virtual tables that are calculated with generic data to enhance the performance.